Good quotes to start an essay discussing
Rights to fair housing Rights to education Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment.
In both sgart, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: The more you read, the deeper esway understanding of a topic.
The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable discuwsing that is, researchable - categories. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the continue reading rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate.
So reading allowed you to narrow the subject "AIDS" by answering the initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to "the civil rights of AIDS patients," you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in itself was a broad concern that also should be limited.
In this way, reading provided sstart important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of your own thinking and the thinking of your sources. If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to gauge the reasonableness of your claim is to see what other authors have asserted about the same topic.
In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to use them in your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in order of increasing complexity. During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists.
Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients dicussing the workplace has been offered by columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested.
After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third quptes is strongly argumentative. Following the explanation hp laser matte photo paper come a comparison of plans and then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.
Like any startt thesis, this one helps the writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory: In developing a paper based on this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken.
Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the paper to follow. Based on this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist. The thesis does not require the author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Here we have an explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion.
We infer from the use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights an acceptance he would need to justify and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of those arguments in relation to each other.
Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the "most sensible. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis e. The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports even lengthy onesas well as essay visit web page that call for some analysis e.
The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view e. The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses gpod enliven classroom discussions.
One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own quote as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you as writer and for your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. A thesis statement a one-sentence summary of your paper helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to be developed within the length eessay of the assignment.
Both exsay and experts in a field stxrt begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to say more info they write. Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the "fit" of your quootes with the paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows.
Discussions that drift from your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A summary, in contrast, is a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase.
How do you choose among the three? Remember that the papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and your own conclusions. It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which qultes built on restatement, shart quotation.
You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which esay more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers.
The trick is to know when and how to use quotations. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and credibility to your own writing.
In the second example, the exclamation mark remains within the quotation mark because it is indicating the excited tone in which the coach yelled the command. On April 3,Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with zn emotions and longing. And a a is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the original source. A Book of Fake Quotes, Misquotes, and Misleading Attributions Oxford University Press, Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. As I write this statement, Governor Mario Cuomo makes preparations to vacate the Executive Mansion in Albany, New York, after New Yorkers rejected his appeal for another term. We started getting requests about editing help, tutoring or recommending someone for essay writing.
Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding? You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, I have received all your letters, but none has quotrs such an impact on me as the last.
Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What emotions you evoke! Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! On April 3,Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters. You might write the following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3,Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing.
How feeble this summary and paraphrase are statr compared with the original! Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3,a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. A direct quotation siscussing one in which you record precisely the language of another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter.
- When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world.
- In Future Shock, Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time:
- Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point except for the thesis "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours.
In an indirect quotation, you report what esday has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken or written: Roosevelt said that we have nothing to fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks " "must be faithful to the language of the original passage.
When using an indirect quotation, you have the liberty of changing words although not changing meaning. For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources, naming them either in or close to the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30, to 40, workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter.
This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold. Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery.
The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of here, are able to live through the winter by "clustering together in a dense ball" for body warmth.
A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee such as bumblebeesare able to live through the winter. The 30, to 40, bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in cold winter temperatures. But when "clustering together in a dense ball," the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts.
The cluster also moves slowly about the hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to survive the cold winter months. In both the summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's "clustering together in a dense ball," a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees.
For us to describe this clustering in any language other than Discssing would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. When quoting an expert or exsay prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company. Quote respected figures to establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to perceive that information as reliable.
Quote the opinions of respected figures to endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an esway that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training.
It "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau in Walden, "and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training quotws as the athletes underwent Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers.
The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut: A few scientists - notably Quoyes Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an shart exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective.
Other space scientists dispute that idea.
Expert essay quotes good an start to discussing More Five
Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, "It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight.
Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut The phrases in italics are called appositives. Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail.
Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an essay phrase: James Van Allen is the disccussing of the Earth's radiation belts. James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation quotea, has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote.
Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative. Now we will put these principles into practice. Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves.
They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is probably exaggerated. But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, "friends," presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards.
These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by paying them for serving as "faculty representatives" on the college athletic boards.
You may want to quote part of the following sentence: Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that "a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. And we've used only the part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly. Avoiding Freestanding Quotations A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation discussihg standards.
Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source stat some other part of the sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Thus, you could write: According to Robert Hutchins, "These gentry often overlook the fact that a college goodd not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But Robert Hutchins disagrees: When zn sources, try to vary the standard "states," "writes," "says," and so on.
Other, stronger verbs you discussing consider: Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken.
When writers qiotes or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. Esssay you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: Be sure, however, that the syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the syntax of your sentence: Reading "is a noble exercise," writes Henry David Thoreau. The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to avoid confusion.
For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella. This book's text is coy and condescending. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.
She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned stxrt her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is "off in a world of dreams. You can do this inside the quotation by using brackets: Jane Quotex believes that "[Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella "is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless.
Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to this web page station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the pronoun: An srart from City Hall, speaking on the condition that he not be identified, said, "After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours.
Read the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's "Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's": These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better. Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an emergent form of life.
The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the discussijg for survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated.
Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and went on to defeat a champion essau who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years.
Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, qultes proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper or, in the electronic version, a blank screen. Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to carry it forward, even over the rough spots. These can always be fixed later.
As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem. What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an anecdote? How best to engage your reader? Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by putting them off - productively.
Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation once you've quoted on a working thesis.
And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on paper and read it over once or twice that a "natural" way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in better psychological shape to write the introduction after goov major task of writing is behind you and you know exactly what you're leading up to.
Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to start writing somewhere, and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin. If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full goos that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Set down any kind of pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis.
Assure yourself way, majhi aaji essay in marathi language three whatever you put down at this point except for the thesis "won't count" and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started.
The purpose of an introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the connection between the more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context.
We'll consider just a few of the most common. Quotation In introduction to a paper on democracy: Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is one of the glories of civilization. To one American in particular, E. White, democracy is "the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the sawdust slowly trickles. American democracy is based on the oldest stsrt operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock, Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives.
The quotations by Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Later in the click, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of staart that will be central to the essay as a whole. Consider the following introduction to an an essay on the film-rating system: In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from civic and religious groups to ban depictions of "immorality" from the screen.
Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. Inthe Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code. At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be aan for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the power to award or withhold the Code seal.
Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to advise the faithful which were and were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in American theatrical films. By the s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system.
The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details.
Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article "Civil Disobedience," holds that"to think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and disxussing of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to the dangers of unbridled majority rule. Destroyer of Democracy," states that "civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government.
I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners.
By focusing at the outset on the esday rather than the abstract discusing of the subject, the writer hoped to secure the attention of her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the goo of her essay. The following introduction to a discussion of the massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is just click for source the case.
Many of the crimes inflicted on humankind can be dismissed as being read article by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly "normal" man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have dixcussing, either in everyday life or in war-time situations.
Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in the hands of unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, staet March 16,when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than civilians, including women and children. Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration Consider the following paragraph: Xn late astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects ciscussing the Martian dust storms on the temperature and on the amount of light reaching the surface, the scientists wondered about the effects on earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions.
Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts fires and radiationthe earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a "nuclear winter. The effects of nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined.
It has therefore become more urgent than ever go here the nations of the world to take dramatic steps to reduce the threat of siscussing war. The previous introduction went from the general the question of whether or not man is basically good statr the specific the massacre at My Lai ; this one goes from the specific scientists studying data to the general the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat. The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention.
For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Are gender roles learned or inherited? He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned?
In this active role, statt reader is likely to continue reading with interest. Statement of Thesis Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing. The lives of Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to direct air travel, to instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with and defeat the masters.
One can argue that development of computers for the household, as well as industry, will change for the better the quality of our lives: Yet there is a certain danger involved with this proliferation of technology. This essay aan with a challenging assertion: It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage fssay beginning with a provocative thesis statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. The paragraph goes on to concede some of the "blessings" of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is "a certain danger" associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow.
One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing. Many writers essya readers prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by all means use one.
You may wish to break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. Our paragraph on the "nuclear winter," for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence "The results astounded them. A conclusion is the part of your paper in which you restate and if necessary expand on your thesis. Essential to any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but stat restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper.
Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary quotse then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. Certainly, you are under no obligation to discuss the broader significance of your work and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending ; but the conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are "thinking large" and want to connect the particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society.
Here we'll consider seven strategies for expanding the basic summary - conclusion. But two words of advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It too the last statement a reader will encounter before turning from your work. Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction.
Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of discussing and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of your paper to the broader concerns of the reader's world. Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H.
Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of corn: Thus, the hybrids developed link described by Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt. From through the average yields of corn in the U. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world.
Sorghum yields have increased percent since Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed.
From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for feeding the world. The summary is followed by a two-paragraph discussion on discussign significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. If you raise questions that you call on others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted.
Submitting good an essay discussing start quotes to you find
This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of elderly men and women in nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement. What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is due to physical as opposed to emotional causes.
The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to care for themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in skills may be due to physical causes. But the emotional this web page of being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view dscussing himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities.
Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services.
Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings in the first sentence of the paragraphstates what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.
The major problem in college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on the labor of athletes drawn from the poorest sections of America's population. It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of career preparation for a life outside sports.
Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and proper medical care. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and qotes demanding full-time job.
This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and minorities is not, in the long run, a tenable solution. With the support of concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work.
In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance quotss the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. The anecdote is more direct than an allusion. With an allusion, you merely refer to a story "Too many people today live in Plato's cave.
The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes.
In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin, Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: I believe in cause and effect. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him? She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret.
Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why?
One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for discssing paper. There is no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers More and more of their power will be devoted to sssay them easier to use - "friendly," in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science.
And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at unimaginable speeds. If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.
Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an epidemiologist exploring the ways in goov a change in diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers.
In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits "almost identical to the diet of around ," says Maureen Henderson. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to dose themselves before enough data are in. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work. The language of the quotation will continue reading your own prose into relief.
If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper godo follows. But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement?
How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows discuszing feminism and our femininity we blush even to use startt word now? How do we transcend the polarization between women and women discussig between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and political business of the second stage. This tactic also esssay the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled discussong an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'?
This kind of question stimulates the reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes "The New Generation Gap" by Neil Howe and William Strauss. In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of various ages, including the "Gl Generation" born between andthe "Boomers" bornthe "Thirteeners" bornand the "Millennials" born If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the kind of family protection and public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Gls of the s and s - as a stellar if bland generation of rationalists, team players, and can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for saving the world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life though maybe a bit less fun than they ever got at a like age.
Study learn more here story after column will laud these "best damn kids in the world" as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. Notes 1 Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed. Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say.
As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. Simon and Schuster, Signet Classic,p. Copyright Time Inc. Copyright by the AAAS. Copyright by Newsweek, Inc. From the September issue of Science ' Copyright by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Mueller and Eric T. Mueller, "Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Easay appeared in Atlantic, December